Blown to Bits: Your Life, Liberty, and Happiness After the Digital Explosion
Author: Harold Abelson、 Ken Ledeen、 Harry R. Lewis

2008/06/06



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Blown to Bits

Your Life, Liberty,and Happiness Afterthe Digital Explosion


Hal Abelson
Ken Ledeen
Harry Lewis

▲Addison-Wesley

Upper Saddle River, NJ • Boston • Indianapolis • San FranciscoNew York • Toronto • Montreal • London • Munich • Paris • MadridCape Town • Sydney • Tokyo • Singapore • Mexico City

2008/06/06

CHAPTER 1

Digital Explosion

Why Is It Happening, and What Is at Stake?


On September 19, 2007, while driving alone near Seattle on her way to work,Tanya Rider went off the road and crashed into a ravine.* For eight days, shewas trapped upside down in the wreckage of her car. Severely dehydrated andsuffering from injuries to her leg and shoulder, she nearly died of kidney fail-ure. Fortunately, rescuers ultimately found her. She spent months recuperat-ing in a medical facility. Happily, she was able to go home for Christmas. Tanya’s story is not just about a woman, an accident, and a rescue. It is astory about bits—the zeroes and ones that make up all our cell phone conver-sations, bank records, and everything else that gets communicated or storedusing modern electronics.

Tanya was found because cell phone companies keep records of cell phone locations. When you carry your cell phone, it regularly sends out a digital "ping," a few bits conveying a "Here I am!” message. Your phone keeps "ping-ing" as long as it remains turned on. Nearby cell phone towers pick up the pings and send them on to your cellular service provider. Your cell phone company uses the pings to direct your incoming calls to the right cell phone towers. Tanya’s cell phone company, Verizon, still had a record of the last location of her cell phone, even after the phone had gone dead. That is how the police found her.

・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・
1
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
2
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
3
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
4
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
5
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
6
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
7
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
8
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
9
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
10
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
11
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
12
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
13
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
14
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
15
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
16
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
17
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
18
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
19
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
20
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
21
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
22
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
23
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
24
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
25
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
26
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
27
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
28
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
29
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
30
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
31
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
32
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
33
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
34
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
35
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
36
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
37
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
38
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
39
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
40
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
41
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
42
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
43
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
44
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
45
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
46
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
47
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
48
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke
49
CLAUDE SHANNON
Claude Shannon (1916–2001) is the undis-puted founding figure of information andcommunication theory. While working at BellTelephone Laboratories after the SecondWorld War, he wrote the seminal paper, “Amathematical theory of communication,”which foreshadowed much of the subsequentdevelopment of digital technologies.Published in 1948, this paper gave birth tothe now-universal realization that the bit isthe natural unit of information, Alcatel-Lucent, http:www.bell-labs.com/news/2001/february/26/shannon2_lg.jpeg

50 We offer seven truths about bits. We call them “koans” because they areparadoxes, like the Zen verbal puzzles that provoke